CBSE 11th class

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This section of ICH helpS the Class XI Students of CBSE to go through the latest updates by the CBSE Board.Here you will find information on CBSE Class XI Datesheets, CBSE Class XI Results, CBSE Class XI Sample Papers, CBSE Class XI Guess Papers, CBSE Class XI Syllabus, CBSE Class XI Exams.

A Study Center  for Class 11. Indiacbse.com will be the complete guide to help you study and score well in Class 11. A complete online study resource for you.

A Place to discuss. Use Blog to express your Self.
 

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CBSE 11TH Accountancy

 

ICH helps the Class XI Students of CBSE Accountancy ( free online Guide) to go through the latest updates by the CBSE Board.Here you will find information on CBSE Class XI Accountancy Sample Papers, CBSE XI Accountancy Guess Papers, CBSE Class XI Accountancy Syllabus and NCERT TeXIbook Solutions.
 
 

Financial Accounting Part 1

1. Introduction to Accounting

2. Theory of Base Accounting

3. Recording of Transaction -I

4. Recording of Transaction -II

5. Bank of Reconcilation Statement

6. Trial Balance & Rectification Error

7.Descrions, Provisions, & Resewrves

8. Bill of EXchange

 

Accountancy Syllabus 2010 - CBSE Class XI

Unit 1: Introduction to Accounting

  • Accounting- meaning, objectives, Accounting as source of information, internal and

    external users of Accounting information and their needs.

  • Qualitative characteristics of Accounting information-reliability, relevance,

    understandability and comparability.

  • Basic Accounting Terms - Asset, Liability, Capital, Expense, Income, Expenditure, Revenue, Debtors, Creditors, Goods, Cost, Gain, Stock, Purchase, Sales, Loss, Profit, Voucher, Discount, Transaction, Drawings.

Unit 2: Theory Base of Accounting

  • Accounting Principles - meaning and nature
  • Accounting Concepts: Entity, Money Measurement, Going Concern, Accounting Period, Cost Concept, Dual Aspect, Revenue Recognition (Realisation), Matching, Accrual, Full Disclosure, Consistency, Conservatism, Materiality
  • Accounting Standards- Concept
  • Process of accounting-from recording of business transactions to preparation of trial balance.
  • Bases of Accounting - Cash Basis, Accrual Basis

Unit 3: Recording of Business Transactions

  • Voucher and Transactions: Origin of Transactions-Source Documents and Vouchers, preparation of Accounting vouchers; Accounting Equation Approach - Meaning and Analysis of transactions using Accounting Equation: Rules of Debit and Credit.
  • Recording of Transactions: Books of original entry - Journal, Special Purpose Books: i) Cash Book - Simple, Cashbook with Bank column and Petty Cashbook, ii) Purchases Book, Sales Book, Purchase Returns Book, Sales Returns Book; Ledger-meaning, utility, format; posting from Journal and Subsidiary books; Balancing of Accounts.
  • Bank Reconciliation Statement: Meaning, Need and Preparation, Corrected Cash Book Balance

Unit 4: Trial Balance and Rectification of Errors

  • Trial Balance: meaning, objectives and preparation.
  • Errors: Types of Errors: Errors of omission, commission, principles and compensating errors affecting Trial Balance; errors not affecting Trial Balance.
  • Detection and Rectificition of Errors (One Sided and Two Sided); use of Suspense Account.

Unit 5: Depreciation, Provisions and Reserves

  • Depreciation: Meaning and need for charging depreciation, factors affecting depreciation,methods of depreciation-Straight Line method, Written Down Value method (excludingchange in method), Method of recording depreciation-charging to asset account, creatingprovision for depreciation/accumulated depreciation account; Treatment of disposal of asset.
  • Provisions and Reserves: meaning, importance, difference between Provisions andReserves, types of Reserves: Revenue Reserve, Capital Reserve, General Reserve, Specific Reserve and Secret Reserves

Unit 6: Accounting for Bills of Exchange Transactions

  • Bills of exchange and Promissory Note: definition, features, parties, specimen and distinction.
  • Important Terms: Term of Bill, Accommodation Bill, Days of Grace, Date of Maturity, Billat Sight, Negotiation, Endorsement, Discounting of Bill, Dishonour, Retirement and Renewal of a Bill.
  • Accounting treatment of trade bills and accomodation bills.
  •  

Part B: Financial Accounting - II

Unit 7: Financial Statements

  • Financial statements: meaning and users.
  • Capital Expenditure and Deferred Revenue Expenditure
  • Trading and Profit and Loss Account: Gross Profit, Operating and net profit.
  • Balance Sheet: need, grouping and marshalling of Assets and Liabilities. Vertical and Horizontal Presentation of Financial Statements.
  • Adjustments in preparation of financial statements with respect to closing stock, expenses, prepaid expenses, accrued Income, Income received In advance, depreciationand bad debts, provision for doubtful debts, provision for discount on debtors, manager's commission.
  • Preparation of Trading and Profit & Loss Account and Balance Sheet of sole proprietorship.

Unit 8: Accounts from incomplete records

Incomplete records : meaning, uses and limitations. Ascertainment of profit/loss by statementof affairs method, conversion method.

Unit 9: Computers in Accounting

  • Introduction to Computer and Accounting Information System (AIS)
  • Applications of computers in accounting:

    - Automation of accounting process, designing accounting reports, MISreporting, data exchange with other information systems

  • Comparison of accounting processes in manual and computerized accounting,highlighting advantages and limitations of automation
  • Sourcing of accounting system: readymade and customized and tailor-madeaccounting system. Advantages and disadvantages of each option.

Unit 10: Accounting and Database System

  • Accounting and Database Management System
  • Concept of entity and relationship: entities and relationships in an Accounting System:designing and creating simple tables, forms, queries and reports in the context of Accounting System.

Recommended text books

1. Accountancy Part - I, Published by NCERT

2. Accountancy Part - II – do –

CBSE 11TH Biology

ICH helps the Class XI Students of CBSE Biology ( free online Guide) to go through the latest updates by the CBSE Board.Here you will find information on CBSE Class XI Biology Sample Papers, CBSE XI Biology Guess Papers, CBSE Class XI Biology Syllabus and NCERT TeXIbook Solutions.

Biology Practical Syllabus 2010 - CBSE Class XI

Biology Practicals for CLASS 11th

Units                            Marks : 30 Marks
1. Experiments and spotting

2. Record of one investigatory project and Viva based on the project

3. Class record and Viva based on experiments

20

5

5

Total 30

A. List of Experiments

1. Study and describe three locally available common flowering plants from each of the following families (Solanaceae, Fabaceae and Liliaceae) Types of root (tap or adventitious), stem (herbaceous/woody) leaf arrangement/shapes/venation/simple or compound).
2. Preparation and study of T.S. of dicot and monocot roots and stems (primary).
3. Study of osmosis by potato osmometer.
4. Study of plasmolysis in epidermal peels (e.g. Rhoeo leaves).
5. Study of distribution of stomata in the upper and lower surface of leaves.
6. Comparative study of the rates of transpiration in the upper and lower surface of leaves.
7. Test for the presence of sugar, starch, proteins and fats. To detect them in suitable plant and animal materials.
 
8. Separate plant pigments through paper chromatography.
 
9. To study the rate of respiration in flower buds and germinating seeds.
10. To study effect of salivary amalyse on starch.
11. To test the presence of urea, sugar, albumin and bile salts in urine.

B. Study/observation of the following (spotting)

1. Study parts of a compound microscope.
2. Study of the specimens and identification with reasons-Bacteria, Oscillatoria, Spirogyra, Rhizopus, Mushroom, Yeast, Liverwort, Moss, Fern, Pines, one monocotyledon and one dicotyledon and one lichen.
3. Study of specimens and identification with reasons-Amoeba, Hydra, Liverfluke, Ascaris, Leech, Earthworm, Prawn, Silkworm, Honeybee, Snail, Starfish, Shark, Rohu, Frog, Lizard, Pigeon and Rabbit.
4. Study of tissues and diversity in shapes and sizes of plant and animal cells (e.g. palisade cells, guard cells, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, xylem, phloem, squamous epithelium, muscle fibres and mammalian blood smear) through temporary/permanent slides.
5. Study of mitosis in onion root tip cells and animals cells (grasshopper) from permanent slides.
6. Study of different modifications in root, stem and leaves.7. Study and identify different types of inflorescences.
8. Study of imbibition in seeds/raisins.
9. Observation and comments on the experimental set up on:a. Anaerobic respiration
b. Phototropism
c. Apical bud removal
d. Suction due to transpiration
 
1. Study and describe three locally available common flowering plants from each of the following families (Solanaceae, Fabaceae and Liliaceae) Types of root (tap or adventitious), stem (herbaceous/woody) leaf arrangement/shapes/venation/simple or compound).
2. Preparation and study of T.S. of dicot and monocot roots and stems (primary).
3. Study of osmosis by potato osmometer.
4. Study of plasmolysis in epidermal peels (e.g. Rhoeo leaves).
5. Study of distribution of stomata in the upper and lower surface of leaves.
6. Comparative study of the rates of transpiration in the upper and lower surface of leaves.
7. Test for the presence of sugar, starch, proteins and fats. To detect them in suitable plant and animal materials.
8. Separate plant pigments through paper chromatography.9. To study the rate of respiration in flower buds and germinating seeds.
10. To study effect of salivary amalyse on starch.
 
11. To test the presence of urea, sugar, albumin and bile salts in urine.
 
B. Study/observation of the following (spotting)
1. Study parts of a compound microscope.
2. Study of the specimens and identification with reasons-Bacteria, Oscillatoria, Spirogyra, Rhizopus, Mushroom, Yeast, Liverwort, Moss, Fern, Pines, one monocotyledon and one dicotyledon and one lichen.
3. Study of specimens and identification with reasons-Amoeba, Hydra, Liverfluke, Ascaris, Leech, Earthworm, Prawn, Silkworm, Honeybee, Snail, Starfish, Shark, Rohu, Frog, Lizard, Pigeon and Rabbit.
4. Study of tissues and diversity in shapes and sizes of plant and animal cells (e.g. palisade cells, guard cells, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, xylem, phloem, squamous epithelium, muscle fibres and mammalian blood smear) through temporary/permanent slides.
5. Study of mitosis in onion root tip cells and animals cells (grasshopper) from permanent slides.
6. Study of different modifications in root, stem and leaves.
 
7. Study and identify different types of inflorescences.
 
8. Study of imbibition in seeds/raisins.
9. Observation and comments on the experimental set up on:
  1. Anaerobic respiration
  2. Phototropism
  3. Apical bud removal
  4. Suction due to transpiration
10. To study human skeleton and different types of joints.
11. Study of external morphology of earthworm, cockroach and frog through models/preserved specimens.
Recommended Textbooks
A text book in Biology, Published by NCERT

Biology Syllabus 2010 - CBSE Class XI

Class XI (Theory)

One Paper                    3 Hours                   70 Marks

Units

Marks

1. Diversity in living world

2. Structural organization in animals and plants

3. Cell: Structure and function

4. Plant physiology

5. Human Physiology

07

12

15

18

18

Total 70

I -Diversity in Living World

Diversity of living organisms

 

Classification of the living organisms (five kingdom classification, major groups and principles of classification within each kingdom). Systematics and binomial System of nomenclature

 

Salient features of animal (non-chordates up to phylum level and chordates up to class level) and plant (major groups; Angiosperms up to class) classification, viruses, viroids, lichens Botanical gardens, herbaria, zoological parks and museums.

II -Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants

Tissues in animals and plants.Morphology, anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit and seed.

Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems of an annelid (earthworm), an insect (cockroach) and an amphibian (frog).

III -CELL: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

Cell: Cell theory; Prokanyotic and encaryotic cell, cell wall, cell membrane and cell organelles' (plastids, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies/dictyosomes, ribosomes, lysosomes, vacuoles, centrioles) and nuclear organization.

 

Mitosis, meiosis, cell cycle.Basic chemical constituents of living bodies.Structure and functions of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids.Enzymes: types, properties and function.

IV -Plant Physiology

Movement of water, food, nutrients and gases, Plants and Water Mineral nutrition, Respiration, Photosynthesis, Plant growth and development.

V Human Physiology

Digestion and absorption.
Breathing and respiration.
Body fluids and circulation.

 

Excretory products and elimination.

Locomotion and movement.

Neural control and coordination,

chemical coordination and regulation.

CBSE 11TH Chemistry

 

ICH helps the Class XI Students of CBSE Chemistry ( free online Guide) to go through the latest updates by the CBSE Board.Here you will find information on CBSE Class XI Chemistry Sample Papers, CBSE XI Chemistry Guess Papers, CBSE Class XI Chemistry Syllabus and NCERT TeXIbook Solutions.

 

Chemistry Practical Syllabus 2010 - CBSE Class XI

Chemistry Practicals

Evaluation Scheme for xamination Marks
Volumetric Analysis

Salt Analysis

Content Based Experiment

Class Record and Viva

Investigatory project

10

6

4

5

5

Total 30
PRACTICALS SYLLABUS

A. Basic Laboratory Techniques

1. Cutting glass tube and glass rod
 
2. Bending a glass tube
 
3. Drawing out a glass jet
 
4. Boring a cork

B. Characterization and purification of chemical substances

1. Determination of melting point of an organic compound
 
2. Determination of boiling point of an organic compound
 
3. Crystallization of impure sample of anyone of the following: Alum, copper sulphate, Benzoic acid.

C. Experiments related to pH change

(a) Anyone of the following experiments:
 
  • Determination of pH of some solutions obtained from fruit juices, varied concentrations of acids. ,bases and salts using pH paper or universal indicator.
  • Comparing the pH of solutions of strong and weak acid of same concentration.
  • Study the pH change in the titration of a strong base using universal indicator.
 
b) Study of pH change by common-ion effect in case of weak acids and weak bases.

D. Chemical equilibrium

One of the following experiments:
 
(a) Study the shift in equilibrium between ferric ions and thiocyanate ions by increasing/ decreasing the concentration of either ions.
 
(b) Study the shift in equilibrium between [Co(H2O)
6
]
2+
and chloride ions by changing the concentration of either of the ions.

E. Quantitative estimation

  • Using a chemical balance.
  • Preparation of standard solution of oxalic acid.
  • Determination of strength of a given solution of sodium hydroxide by titrating it against standard solution of oxalic acid.
  • Preparation of standard solution of sodium carbonate.
  • Determination of strength of a given solution of hydrochloric acid by titrating it against standard sodium carbonate solution.
F. Qualitative analysis
Determination of one anion and one cation in a given salt
 
Cations- Pb
2+
, Cu
2+
, As
3+
A1
3+
Fe
3+
Mn
2+
, Ni
2+
, Zn
2+
, Co
2+
Ca
2+
, Sr
2+
, Ba
2+
, Mg
2+
, NH
4+
Anions- CO
32-
, S
2-
, SO
32-
, SO
4 2-
, NO
2-
, NO
3-
, Cl
-
, Br
-
, I
-
, PO
43-
, C
2
O
42-
, CH
3
COO
-
(Note: Insoluble salts excluded)

G. Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, Chlorine

bromine and iodine in an organic compound.

PROJECT

Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources.

A Few suggested Projects

  • Checking the bacterial contamination in drinking water by testing sulphide ion.
  • Study of the methods of purification of water.
  • Testing the hardness, presence of iron, fluoride, chloride etc. depending upon the regional variation in drinking water and the study of causes of presences of these ions above permissible limit (if any).
  • Investigation of the foaming capacity of different washing soaps and the effect of addition of sodium carbonate on them.
  • Study of the acidity of different samples of the tea leaves.
  • Determination of the rate of evaporation of different liquids.
  • Study of the effect of acids and bases on the tensile strength of fibers.
  • Analysis of fruit and vegetable juices for their acidity.
Note:
Any other investigatory project, which involves about 10 period of work, can be chosen with the approval of the teacher.

Recommended Textbooks.

1. Chemistry Part - I, Published by NCERT
 
2. Chemistry Part - II, Published by NCERT

Chemistry Syllabus 2010 - CBSE Class XI

 

COURSE STRUCTURE

Class XI (Theory)

One Paper                                  Time: 3 Hours                              70 marks

UnitNo. Title Marks
Unit I

Unit II

UnitIII

UnitIV

Unit V

UnitVI

UnitVII

Unit VIII

Unit IX

Unit X

Unit XII

Unit XII

Uni XIII

Uni XIV

Some Basic concepts of chemistry

Structure of Atom

Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties

Chemical Bonding and molecular Structure

States of Matter: Gases and Liquids

Thermodynamics

Equilibrium

Redox Reactions

Hydrogen

S-Block Elements

Some P-Block Elements

Organic Chemistry: some basic Principles and Techniques Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons

Environmental Chemistry

3

6

4

5

4

6

6

3

3

5

7

7

8

3

Total 70

Unit: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

 

General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry.

 

Historical approach to particulate nature of matter, laws of chemical combination. Dalton's atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules.

 

Atomic and molecular masses mole concept and molar mass: percentage composition, empirical and molecular formula chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.

Unit II: Structure of Atom

Discovery of electron, proton and neutron; atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Thomson's model and its limitations, Rutherford's model and its limitations. Bohr's model and its limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie's relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p, and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals - Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle and Hund's rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.

Unit III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties

Significance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic table, modern periodic law and the present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements -atomic radii, ionic radii. Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electro negativity, valence.

Unit IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure

Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond: bond parameters. Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization, involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital; theory of homo nuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only), hydrogen bond.

Unit V: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids

Three states of matter. Intermolecular interactions, type of bonding, melting and boiling points. Role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle's law. Charles

 

law, Gay Lussac's law, Avogadro's law. Ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro's number. Ideal gas equation. Derivation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature.

 

Liquid State - Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations).

Unit VI: Thermodynamics

Concepts Of System, types of systems, surroundings. Work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions.

 

First law of thermodynamics - internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of U and H, Hess's law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of: bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation. Phase transformation, ionization, and solution.

 

Introduction of entropy as a state function, free energy change for spontaneous and nonspontaneous processes, criteria for equilibrium.

Unit VII: Equilibrium

Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium - Le Chatelier's principle; ionic equilibrium - ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, concept of pH. Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea). Buffer solutions, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).

Unit VIII: Redox Reactions

Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing redox reactions, applications of redox reactions.

Unit IX : Hydrogen

Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydrides - ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, properties and structure; hydrogen as a fuel.

Unit X: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)

Group 1 and Group 2 elements:

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses.

Preparation and properties of some important compounds: Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate,

biological importance of sodium and potassium. CaO, CaCO3

and industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca

Unit XI: Some p-Block Elements

General Introduction to p-Block Elements

Group 13 elements:

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence. Variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group; Boron- physical and chemical properties, some important compounds: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminium: uses, reactions with acids and alkalies.

Group 14 elements:

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first element, Carbon - catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses of some important compounds: oxides.

 

Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites.

Unit XII: Organic Chemistry - Some Basic Principles and Techniques

General introduction, methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds

Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation.

Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radicals, carbocations, carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions

Unit XIII: Hydrocarbons

Classification of hydrocarbons

Alkanes - Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.

 

Alkenes - Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene) geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation; chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov's addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.

 

Alkynes - Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties. Methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of - hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.

 

Aromatic hydrocarbons: Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; benzene: resonance aromaticity; chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution. - nitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft's alkylation and acylation: directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.

Unit XIV: Environmental Chemistry

Environmental pollution - air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smog, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain, ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming - pollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution.

CBSE 11TH Economics

 

ICH helps the Class XI Students of CBSE Economics ( free online Guide) to go through the latest updates by the CBSE Board.Here you will find information on CBSE Class XI Economics Sample Papers, CBSE XI Economics Guess Papers, CBSE Class XI Economics Syllabus and NCERT Textbook Solutions.

 

Economics Syllabus 2010 - CBSE XI Class

COURSE STRUCTURE

Class XI

Paper 1                        3 Hours                      100 Marks

 

Units Marks
Part A : Statistics for Economics

1. Introduction

2. Collection, Organisation and Presentation of Data

3. Statistical Tools and Interpretation

4. Developing Projects in Economics

3

12

30

5

Total 50

 

Units

Marks

Part B: Indian Economic Development

5. Development Policies and Experience (1947-90)

6. Economic Reforms since 1991

7. Current Challenges facing Indian Economy

8. Development experience of India-A

comparison with neighbours

10

8

25

7

  50

Part A : Statistics for Economics

In this course, the learners are expected to acquire skills in collection, organisation and presentation of quantitative and qualitative information pertaining to various simple economic aspects systematically. It also intends to provide some basic statistical tools to analyse, and interpret any economic information and draw appropriate inferences. In this process, the learners are also expected to understand the behaviour of various economic data.

Unit 1: Introduction

What is Economics?

Meaning, scope and importance of statistics in Economics

Unit 2: Collection, Organisation and Presentation of data

Collection of data - sources of data - primary and secondary; how basic data is collected; methods of collecting data; Some important sources of secondary data: Census of India and National Sample Survey Organisation.Organisation of Data: Meaning and types of variables; Frequency Distribution.

 

Presentation of Data: Tabular Presentation and Diagrammatic Presentation of Data: (i) Geometric forms (bar diagrams and pie diagrams), (ii) Frequency diagrams (histogram, polygon and ogive) and (iii) Arithmetic line graphs (time series graph).

Unit 3: Statistical Tools and Interpretation

(For all the numerical problems and solutions, the appropriate economic interpretation may be attempted. This means, the students need to solve the problems and provide interpretation for the results derived)Measures of Central Tendency- mean (simple and weighted), median and modeMeasures of Dispersion - absolute dispersion (range, quartile deviation, mean deviation and standard deviation); relative dispersion (co-efficient of quartile-deviation, co-efficient of mean deviation, co-efficient of variation); Lorenz Curve: Meaning and its application.Correlation - meaning, scatter diagram; Measures of correlation - Karl Pearson's method (two variables ungrouped data) Spearman's rank correlation.Introduction to Index Numbers - meaning, types - wholesale price index, consumer price index and index of industrial production, uses of index numbers; Inflation and index numbers.

Unit 4: Developing Projects in Economics

The students may be encouraged to develop projects, which have primary data, secondary data or both. Case studies of a few organisations / outlets may also be encouraged. Some of the examples of the projects are as follows (they are not mandatory but suggestive):

 

(i) A report on demographic structure of your neighborhood;

(ii) Consumer awareness amongst households

(iii) Changing prices of a few vegetables in your market

(iv) Study of a cooperative institution: milk cooperatives
 

The idea behind introducing this unit is to enable the students to develop the ways and means by which a project can be developed using the skills learned in the course. This includes all the steps involved in designing a project starting from choosing a title, exploring the information relating to the title, collection of primary and secondary data, analysing the data, presentation of the project and using various statistical tools and their interpretation and conclusion.

Part B: Indian Economic Development

Unit 5: Development Policies and Experience (1947-90):

A brief introduction of the state of Indian economy on the eve of independence. Common goals of Five Year Plans.Main features, problems and policies of agriculture (institutional aspects and new agricultural strategy, etc.), industry (industrial licensing, etc,) and foreign trade.

Unit 6: Economic Reforms since 1991

:Need and main features - liberalisation, globalisation and privatisation;An appraisal of LPG policies

Unit 7: Current challenges facing Indian Economy:

Poverty- absolute and relative; Main programmes for poverty alleviation: A critical assessment; Rural development: Key issues - credit and marketing - role of cooperatives; agricultural diversification; alternative farming - organic farming Human Capital Formation: How people become resource; Role of human capital in economic development; Growth of Education Sector in India Employment: Growth, informalisation and other issues: Problems and policiesInfrastructure: Meaning-and Types: Case Studies: Energy and Health: Problems and Policies- A critical assessment;Sustainable Economic Development:Meaning; Effects of Economic Development on Resources and Environment.

Unit 8: Development Experience of India:

A comparison with neighbours  India and Pakistan India and China

CBSE 11TH English

CBSE English - Chap 1 - The Portrait of a Lady

CBSE English - Chap 1 - The Portrait of a Lady - Page 7 - Q 1

CBSE English - Chap 1 - The Portrait of a Lady - Page 7 - Q 2

CBSE English - Chap 1 - The Portrait of a Lady - Page 7 - Q 3

CBSE 11TH History

ICH helps the Class XI Students of CBSE History ( free online Guide) to go through the latest updates by the CBSE Board.Here you will find information on CBSE Class XI History Sample Papers, CBSE XI History Guess Papers, CBSE Class XI History Syllabus and NCERT TeXIbook Solutions.

CBSE 11TH Maths

CBSE 11TH Maths Syllabus

 

COURSE STRUCTURE

Class XI

One Paper       Three Hours       Max Marks. 100

 

Units Marks
I. SETS AND FUNCTIONS

II. ALGEBRA

III. COORDINATE GEOMETRY

IV. CALCULUS

V. MATHEMATICAL REASONING

VI. STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY

29

37

13

06

03

12

  100

UNIT-I: SETS AND FUNCTIONS

1.

Sets :

Sets and their representations. Empty set. Finite & Infinite sets. Equal sets.Subsets. Subsets of the set of real numbers especially intervals (with notations). Power set. Universal set. Venn diagrams. Union and Intersection of sets. Difference of sets. Complement of a set.
2.Relations & Functions:

 

Ordered pairs, Cartesian product of sets. Number of elements in the cartesian product of two finite sets. Cartesian product of the reals with itself (upto R x R x R). Definition of relation, pictorial diagrams, domain. codomain and range of a relation. Function as a special kind of relation from one set to another. Pictorial representation of a function, domain, co-domain & range of a function. Real valued function of the real variable, domain and range of these functions, constant, identity, polynomial, rational, modulus, signum and greatest integer functions with their graphs. Sum, difference, product and quotients of functions.

3. Trigonometric Functions:

Positive and negative angles. Measuring angles in radians & in degrees and conversion from one measure to another. Definition of trigonometric functions with the help of unit circle. Truth of the identity sin2x + cos2x=1, for all x. Signs of trigonometric functions and sketch of their graphs. Expressing sin (x+y) and cos (x+y) in terms of sinx, siny, cosx & cosy. Deducing the identities like the following: Identities related to sin 2x, cos2x, tan 2x, sin3x, cos3x and tan3x. General solution of trigonometric equations of the type sin = sin , cos = cos and tan = tan


UNIT-II: ALGEBRA

1. Principle of Mathematical Induction:

Processes of the proof by induction, motivating the application of the method by looking at natural numbers as the least inductive subset of real numbers. The principle of mathematical induction and simple applications.

2. Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations:

Need for complex numbers, especially, to be motivated by inability to solve every quadratic equation. Brief description of algebraic properties of complex numbers. Argand plane and polar representation of complex numbers. Statement of Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, solution of quadratic equations in the complex number system.

3. Linear Inequalities:

Linear inequalities. Algebraic solutions of linear inequalities in one variable and their representation on the number line. Graphical solution of linear inequalities in two variables. Solution of system of linear inequalities in two variables- graphically.

4. Permutations & Combinations:

Fundamental principle of counting. Factorial n. (n!)Permutations and combinations, derivation of formulae and their connections, simple applications.

5. Binomial Theorem:

History, statement and proof of the binomial theorem for positive integral indices. Pascal's triangle, General and middle term in binomial expansion, simple applications.

6. Sequence and Series:

Sequence and Series. Arithmetic progression (A. P.). arithmetic mean (A.M.) Geometric progression (G.P.), general term of a G.P., sum of n terms of a G.P., geometric mean (G.M.), relation between A.M. and G.M. Sum to n terms of the special series

and

UNIT-III: COORDINATE GEOMETRY

1.Straight Lines:

 

Brief recall of 2D from earlier classes. Slope of a line and angle between two lines. Various forms of equations of a line: parallel to axes, point-slope form, slope-intercept form, twopoint form, intercepts form and normal form. General equation of a line. Distance of a point from a line.

 

2.Conic Sections:

 

Sections of a cone: circle, ellipse, parabola, hyperbola, a point, a straight line and pair of intersecting lines as a degenerated case of a conic section. Standard equations and simple properties of parabola, ellipse and hyperbola. Standard equation of a circle.

 

3.Introduction to Three -dimensional Geometry

 

Coordinate axes and coordinate planes in three dimensions. Coordinates of a point. Distance between two points and section formula.

UNIT-IV: CALCULUS

1. Limits and Derivatives:

 

Derivative introduced as rate of change both as that of distance function and geometrically, intuitive idea of limit. Definition of derivative, relate it to slope of tangent of the curve, derivative of sum, difference, product and quotient of functions. Derivatives of polynomial and trigonometric functions.

UNIT-V: MATHEMATICAL REASONING

1. Mathematical Reasoning:

Mathematically acceptable statements. Connecting words/ phrases - consolidating the understanding of "if and only if (necessary and sufficient) condition", "implies", "and/or", "implied by", "and", "or", "there exists" and their use through variety of examples related to real life and Mathematics. Validating the statements involving the connecting wordsdifference between contradiction, converse and contrapositive.

UNIT-VI: STATISTICS & PROBABILITY

1. Statistics:

Measure of dispersion; mean deviation, variance and standard deviation of ungrouped/grouped data. Analysis of frequency distributions with equal means but different variances.

2. Probability:

Random experiments: outcomes, sample spaces (set representation). Events: occurrence of events, 'not', 'and' and 'or' events, exhaustive events, mutually exclusive events Axiomatic (set theoretic) probability, connections with the theories of earlier classes. Probability of an event, probability of 'not', 'and' & 'or' events.

Recommended Textbooks.

1) Mathematics Part I - Textbook for Class XI, NCERT Publication
2) Mathematics Part II - Textbook for Class XI, NCERT Publication

 

CBSE 11TH Physics

CBSE Sample Papers CLASS XI - Chemistry

Class XK Sample Papers Chemistry
SAMPLE PAPER I
SAMPLE PAPER II
SAMPLE PAPER III
SAMPLE PAPER IV
UNIT-TEST 1
UNIT-TEST 2
UNIT-TEST 3