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CBSE 10th Maths Chap 1 - Real Numbers

Chapter Summary


 

1. Euclid’s division lemma :

Given positive integers a and b, there exist whole numbers q and r satisfying a = bq + r, 0 ≤ r < b.

2. Euclid’s division algorithm : This is based on Euclid’s division lemma. According to this, the HCF of any two positive integers a and b, with a > b, is obtained as follows:

Step 1 : Apply the division lemma to find q and r where a = bq + r, 0 ≤ r < b.

Step 2 : If r = 0, the HCF is b. If r ≠ 0, apply Euclid’s lemma to b and r.

Step 3 : Continue the process till the remainder is zero. The divisor at this stage will be

HCF (a, b). Also, HCF(a, b) = HCF(b, r).

3. The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic :

Every composite number can be expressed (factorised) as a product of primes, and this factorisation is unique, apart from the order in which the prime factors occur.

4. If p is a prime and p divides a2, then p divides q, where a is a positive integer.

5. To prove that 2, 3 are irrationals.

6. Let x be a rational number whose decimal expansion terminates. Then we can express x in the form p

q , where p and q are coprime, and the prime factorisation of q is of the form 2n5m, where n, m are non-negative integers.

7. Let x = p/q be a rational number, such that the prime factorisation of q is of the form 2n5m,where n, m are non-negative integers. Then x has a decimal expansion which terminates.

8. Let x = p/q be a rational number, such that the prime factorisation of q is not of the form 2n 5m, where n, m are non-negative integers. Then x has a decimal expansion which isnon-terminating repeating (recurring).


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